The Chronology of Reproduction, IVF and ART
FertAid has compiled a brief summary of the history of IVF but of course it will always remain incomplete. Please feel free to add to this Chronology here.
Fallopian Tubes Described.
First correct anatomical description of the Fallopian tube: G. Fallopius
Fallopian Tubes/Ovaries Described.
Gabrielis Fallopius, under Andreas Vesalius, describes the fallopian tubes as extending from the uterus to the ovaries and appearing like a trumpet.
First suggestion all organism come from an egg
Harvey book promotes the concept that all organism are derieved from an egg
The uterus and ovaries are described
Swammerdam submits to the Royal Society illustrations of the uterus and ovary
de Graaf Defines the Fallopian tubes
Reinier de Graaf defines the function of the Fallopian tubes correctly as carrrying the products of the ovary to the uterus.
Spermatozoa are first seen
Leeuwenhoek wrote to the Royal Society describing spermatozoa
Theory of spontaneous generation is disproved.
1768 Italian physiologist Lazzaro Spallanzani demonstrates that the theory of spontaneous generation is incorrect by showing that micro-organisms do not appear in meat broth sealed inside tightly closed jars that have been boiled for 30 minutes.
The first documented application of AI in human
The first documented application of AI in human was done in London in the 1770s by John Hunter, which has been called in medical history the `the founder of scientific surgery`
Spallanzini decribes early frog IVF
Spallanzini (1729-1799) decribes that frog oocytes only develop into tadpoles after contact with semen.
Filtration removes frog sperm fertility
Spallanzani reported that filtration of semen, heat and mixing with spirts, vinegar and salts remove the fertilising ability of frog semen
The role of semen in fertilisation described.
1779 Lazzaro Spallanzani describes the role of semen in fertilisation, and shows that sperm have to make physical contact with the egg for fertilisation to take place.
Spermatozoa identified in the testis
Work by Jean-Luis Prevost & Jean-baptists Dumas spermatozoa in the early 1800`swere found in the testis of many animal species and that spermatozoa must be produced in the testis.
Spermatozoa first mentioned.
The term spermatozoa was first used by von Baer
The human egg is first described
Von Baer described the human egg for the first time
The movement of the ovum is described,
Gabriel Gustav Valentin (born of German and Swiss parents in Poland) and Jan Purkinje (from Czechoslovakia) discover that the ovum is moved through the oviduct by cilia.
Owen describes sperm as parasites
Richard Owens reflected the common views at the time that spermatozoa were merely parasites.
von Kolliker describes sperm as cells
Swiss Albert von Kolliker describes spermatozoa as motile autologous cells that develop from testicular cells by histogenesis (from Clarke)
Spallanzani`s experiments confirmed
Prevost & Dumas confirm Spallanzini`s filtration experiments confirming filtration removed spermatozoa from semen.
Motile sperm required for fertilisation
In the mid 1800s, Prevost & Dumas demonstrate motile spermatozoa required for fertilisation of frog oocytes.
Fertilsiation observed in Ascaris
Henry Nelson reports observing the entry of a single motile spermatozoon into the transparent ovule - `the first in which the act of the penetration of the speramtozoa into the ovum has been seen and clearly established
Fertilisation observed in amphibians
George Nelson reports seeing fertilsation in amphibians.
Gregor Mendel studies on heredity.
Gregor Mendel, an Austrian monk, begins investigating variation, heredity and evolution in plants in his monastery garden.
First reports of post coital test.
Marion Sims reported his findings of postcoital tests and 55 inseminations in the mid 1800s. Only one pregnancy occurred but this could be explained by the fact that he believed that ovulation occurred during menstruation.
Mendel publishes his work on heredity.
Mendel publishes his work on heredity. It contains detailed descriptions of huge numbers of experiments which he subjects to statistical analysis. Despite its rigorous approach, Mendel`s work is ignored for the next 34 years.
Charles Darwin publishes The Descent of Man
Charles Darwin publishes his book The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex in which he looks at evidence for the evolution of humans and sexual selection.
Fertilisation seen in mammals
Edouard van Bebeden (1875) and Oscar Hertwig (1876) report observing fertilisation in mammals.
Realisation of role of sperm and eggs
Understanding that fertilisation requires the fusion of one sperm with one egg: Hertwik (sea urchin), Van Beneden (rabbit) & Fol (starfish
Fertilisation and pronucleus seen in starfish
Ernst Haeckel reports seeing the penetration and fertilisation leading to pronucleus formation in the starfish
Chromosome reduction proposed in Ascaris
van Benden describes the reduction in chromosome number in the gametes of Ascaris.
Chromosomes inheritance proposed.
van Benden proposes chromosomes muts play a part in the physical vechile of inheritance
Egg described as a cell.
It is shown for the first time that the egg is a cell, and that all cells in an organism came from divisions of the original egg cell.
First embryo transfer
1890 First embryo transfer (in rabbit): Heape
The first attempts to develop AI Methodology.
In 1899 the first attempts to develop practical methods for artificial insemination were described by Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov (Russia, 1870-1932).
The term `gene` uses for the first time.
The terms "gene", "genotype" and "phenotype" are used for the first time
First suggestion on the role of the pituitary
Work by Crow, Cushing and Homans first suggested a role of the pituitary in the regualtion of the gonads.
First culture of mammalian embryos
1912 First culture of mammalian embryos: Brachet
Ilya Ivanov perfected artificial insemination
Around the start of the 20th century, Ilya Ivanov perfected artificial insemination and its practical usage for horse breeding. He proved that this technology allows one stallion to fertilize up to 500 mares (cf Igor KATKOV)
Early work on the role of the pituitary
Zondeck and Ascheim suggets that implantation of the pituitary evoked rapid development of sexual puberty in immature animals
FSH, LH and hCG defined
Smith involved in the discovery of FSH and LH, later hCG and PMSG
First experiments on IVF
1930 First experiments on IVF (rabbits): Pincus - [Bolton et al 2014]
The maturation of human oocytes described
Gregory Pincus describes the maturation of rabbit and then human oocytes in vitro
Publication of Brave New World
1932 Publication of Brave New World: A Huxley [Bolton et al 2014]
First attempt at IVF using human oocytes
1944 First attempt at IVF using human oocytes: Rock & Menkin [Bolton et al 2014]
First Culture medium
1949 Culture medium in which 8-cell mouse embryos developed to blastocysts: J Hammond Jr [Bolton et al 2014]
Cryopreservation of spermatozoa
Chris Polge describes the vitrification and cryorecovery of ram spermatozoa using glycerol as the cryoprotectant.
Capacitation in sperm
1951 Capacitation in sperm: Chang; Austin [Bolton et al 2014]
Mitochondia involved in respiration.
1952 James Bonner shows that mitochondria are involved in the reactions of cellular respiration.
hMG defined.
Borth and Lunenfeld identify in the human urine a hormone with biologically active hormone capable of inducing spermatogenesis in hypophysectomized peripubertal rats - called humand menopausal gonadotrophin hMG
First births from frozen human spermatozoa
Bunge and Sherman report the first human births reulsting from cryoperserved spermatozoa.
First in vitro fertilisation in the rabbit
Charles Thibault described the fertilisation of rabbit oocytes in vitro and the development of pronuclei.
Transfer of cultured mouse blastocyst
1958 Transfer of cultured mouse blastocyst to the uterus of another female followed by birth of live young: McLaren & Biggers [Bolton et al 2014]
Unequivocal demonstration of IVF
1959 Unequivocal demonstration of IVF in the rabbit: Chang [Bolton et al 2014]
Fertilisation in vitro and live birth
M.C.Chang from the Worcester Foundation achieved fertilisation of rabbit in vitro and the birth of live young to a surrogate mother of a different strain.
First human oocyte fertilisation in vitro
1969 Demonstration of human oocyte fertilisation in vitro: Edwards, Bavister & Steptoe. [Bolton et al 2014]
Cryopreservation of mouse embryos
Davd Whitingham reported the the successful cryopreservation of mouse embryos.
First human pregnancy (ectopic)
1976 First human pregnancy (ectopic) after IVF and embryo transfer: Steptoe & Edwards. Bolton et al 2014]
Worlds first test tube baby was born.
Louise Brown is born
First IVF birth in Australia
Candice Reed was born in Melbourne from a team of Ian Johnston, Carl Wood, Alex Lopata and Alan Trounson.
First IVF birth in the USA
Elizabeth Carr was born in Norfolk Medical School headed by Dr Georgeanna Jones and Howard Jones and Lucinda Veeck
Use of frozen sperm in human IVF.
Successful use of human semen cryobanking for in vitro fertilization.
Pregnancy following HRT and oocyte donation.
The establishment and maintenance of pregnancy using in vitro fertilization and embryo donation in a patient with primary ovarian failure
The worlds first frozen embryo pregnancy
Zoe, a 5 1/2 pound infant girl was born in Melbourne at Monash University IVF Proramme.
GIFT Introduced
GIFT (Gamete IntraFallopian Transfer) is developed, a simpler procedure than full in vitro fertilisation
Single spermatozoa and fertilization
In the mid 1800s, Prevost & Dumas proposed a single spermatozoon fertilised a single oocyte.
First birth from a frozen oocyte
Australia reported the world`s first pregnancy using frozen oocytes in 1984 - see Chen C. (1986) "Pregnancy after human oocyte cryopreservation". Lancet 1 (8486): 884-886
The worlds oldest egg discovered
A fossilised dinosaur egg is discovered which X-rays show contains the oldest known embryo - 150 million years old.
The first transgenic sheep is born
Tracey, the first transgenic sheep, is born. She has human genes which enable her to produce human protein in her milk. This protein is extracted and can be used to help relieve the symptoms of people suffering from cystic fibrosis and emphysema.
Worlds first ICSI baby
The first ICSI baby was born in Brussels from the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) IVF unit.
First pregnancy with recombinant FSH
First established pregnancy and birth after ovarian stimulation with recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone
Dolly the sheep is born
Dolly was the first cloned mammal
Polly the sheep is born.
Polly the sheep born later in the year is the first genetically engineered sheep to be cloned.
IVF achieved in the mouse with dead sperm
At the University of Hawaii, Teruhiko Wakayama and Ryuzo Yanagimachi use freeze dried mouse sperm, which is technically dead, to produce normal living mice offspring. The sperm is rehydrated before use.
Dolly the sheep delivers healthy offspring.
Dolly the sheep gives birth to her own lamb, showing that she is capable of reproducing normally.
Cloned engineered Goats born.
Healthy cloned goats are produced for the first time. Like the earlier sheep, they contain an engineered human gene so that they can make an anti-clotting factor in their milk.
Cloned pigs are born
Cloned pigs are born for the first time in work done by Alan Coleman and his team at PPL Therapeutics in Scotland.
Baby born after CHG
Wilton describes the birth of a child after Comparative Genomic Hybridisation and cryostorage. NEJM 345:1537-1541
Dolly the sheep dies
Dolly the first cloned mammal dies.
First Birth from a frozen donor oocyte
A baby girl, Avery Lee, born December 31, 2005, at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center in Lexington, Kentucky from the first commercial donor egg bank in the world [see]
Embryonic Stem cells from Rhesus Macaque monkeys
Skin fibroblasts from a Macaque rhesus monkey were used to generate 2 viable embryonic stem cell lines by SCNT technology.
Human sperm created from embryonic stem cells
Human sperm have been created using embryonic stem cells for the first time in a scientific development which will lead researchers to a better understanding of the causes of infertility.
Live birth following uterine transplant
The first livebirth after uterus transplantation was reported. This was a proof-of-concept for uterus transplantation as a treatment for uterine factor infertility.
First live birth after ovarian tissue transplant
First report of successful fertility restoration after the graft of ovarian tissue cryopreserved before menarche offers reassuring evidence for the feasibility of the procedure when performed during childhood
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